A New Flora of the Pacific Northwest
A project by the Burke Museum Herbarium
Updating a seminal work of Pacific Northwest botany

The University of Washington Herbarium at the Burke Museum is producing a new reference manual for Pacific Northwest Vascular Plants, based on the authoritative Flora of the Pacific Northwest published in 1973 by C. Leo Hitchcock and Arthur Cronquist.

The original, 730-page, single volume book was designed by the authors to be a portable plant identification manual for professional and amateur botanists. Even today it remains a singular piece of scholarship and a model for how to produce a flora. The new Flora will be fully updated to include all native and naturalized taxa presently known from the region, with up-to-date nomenclature and classifications, while maintaining the original's familiar layout, styles, and use of illustrated keys.

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Give online at the Burke Museum web site:
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(select Pacific Northwest Flora Revision)
Treatments and illustrations: $448,100

Publication (editing, layout, etc.): $16,500

Timeline and funding needs

We estimate that completion of a revised Flora of the Pacific Northwest manuscript will require three to five years, with a planned publication date of early 2018.

Total project costs are estimated at $400,000 for content production (revising treatments and keys, acquisition of new illustrations, and illustration placement) and $30,000 for publication preparation (copy editing, technical editing, layout, indexing, glossary, etc.). All funds must be raised from external sources. Publishing costs will be handled in cooperation with the University of Washington Press.

You can support production of the flora by volunteering your time or making a donation.

Completed Treatments:
Families: 159 of 159
Genera: 1,133 of 1,133
Taxa: 5,301 of 5,301
Illustrations: 1,298 of 1,350

All treatments have now been completed. These treatments cover 159 families, 1,133 genera and 5,301 terminal taxa, representing about 800 pages of content. New illustrations have been completed for 1298 taxa; a few additional illustrations are being done as resources allow.

Initial stages of the project included development of workflows, and digitizing content from the 1973 Flora using scanners and OCR. We have fully scanned all pages from the 1973 Manual and the original 5-Volume Flora. High-resolution illustrations were extracted from these scanned pages. An overview of our methods is available.

Why is a new Flora needed?

Neither a region’s flora nor the science of vascular plant taxonomy is static in their nature. In the 40 years since publication of Flora of the Pacific Northwest significant changes have occurred to the region’s flora (discovery of new species, arrival of additional non-native species) and to the classification and naming of the taxa covered in that volume. We estimate:

The Flora of the Pacific Northwest remains a vital resource for academic researchers, federal and state agency botanists, land managers, undergraduate and graduate students, and amateur botany enthusiasts. At the time of publication, users of the Flora could arrive at a currently accepted name for nearly all taxa within the region when using the keys provided. Today those same keys would achieve a similar result for only 47% of the region's taxa. Users must increasingly consult other state/province and continental-scale floras. Developing models predicting distribution changes in response to climate change, determining the correct identification of a rare species in a national park, exploring possible topics for taxonomic research, describing new species, or learning about the wildflowers where one recreates or lives all require a contemporary and comprehensive flora. The needs for a new flora are numerous.

Learn more about the New Flora

We closely follow the boundary used by the 1973 Flora.
A summary of taxonomic changes and additions, comparing the 1973 Flora with the current flora.
Representative examples of species added to the flora since 1973, and species, genera, and families in need of updating to reflect new information.
Learn about our methods and technological solutions for efficiently producing an updated flora.
List of completed family treatments and basic statistics for each.