Flora of the Pacific Northwest, 2nd Edition
A project by the Burke Museum Herbarium
Taxonomic Conspectus

The statistics below compare all terminal taxa (e.g., subspecies and varieties along with those species that lack subspecies or varieties) treated in the 1st Edition (the 1973 manual) with those treated in the Second Edition of the Flora.

The 2nd Edition accounts for 5,545 taxa, a net increase of 1,130 (25.6%) relative to the 4,415 taxa treated in the 1st Edition. Of the 5,545 taxa treated, 5,335 are considered present within the Flora region, leaving 210 extralimital taxa (e.g., misapplications or geographically peripheral taxa); 5,085 taxa are given full treatment within key leads or descriptions while 452 are mentioned only in the commentary following family and genus descriptions.

The 24.6% increase relative to the 1st Edition is due to a number of factors. Foremost among these is the establishment, or detection, of additional exotic taxa within our area following publication of the 1st Edition. The number of exotic taxa treated has doubled, and accounts for ca. 69% of the net increase. The remaining 31% mainly stem from range extensions for native taxa, species recently published as new to science, and previously-published taxa resurrected through revisionary work. Increases in the number of families and genera have been driven largely by the establishment of new exotic taxa and revisionary work stemming from systematic studies. Molecular and phylogenetic methods have often led to narrower family and generic concepts; hence, more of them. Correspondingly, many taxa treated as infraspecies in the 1st Edition are now recognized at the rank of species, resulting in a net decrease of 4.6% in the number of infraspecies.

Nomenclatural changes between the two editions are numerous; only 58% of the 4,415 taxa included in the 1st Edition are treated in the 2nd Edition under the same names and taxonomic circumscriptions. Conversely, only 41% of the taxa treated in the 2nd Edition were also treated in the 1st Edition with unchanged names and circumscriptions; the remaining 59% represent the combined effect of nomenclatural changes and new additions to the flora.

Illustrations are provided for 4,373 (95%) of the 4,575 species given full treatment in the 2nd Edition, including 3,353 (99%) of the native species and 1,020 (85%) of the exotic species. Infraspecies are less frequently illustrated. The overall illustration rate for taxa given full treatment is 4,716 (93%) out of 5,085.

Comparison of the total number of taxa treated:
  1st Edition 2nd Edition Net Change % Change
Families 129 159 30 23.3%
Genera 826 1,141 315 38.1%
Species 3,555 4,818 1,263 35.5%
Infraspecies 1,393 1,329 -64 -4.6%
Native Taxa 3,559 3,891 332 9.3%
Exotic Taxa 722 1,444 722 100%
Total Taxa 4,281 5,335 1,054 24.6%
Excluded Taxa 134 210 76 56.7%

Native taxa are those considered to be native to any part of the Flora region; the few taxa with both native and introduced populations are counted as native. Tallies include taxa mentioned only in the commentary following family and genus descriptions that nonetheless occur in the Flora region. Excluded taxa are those not known to be present in the Flora region that are nevertheless treated or mentioned in the 2nd Edition; excluded taxa are omitted from the other tallies.

Summary of taxa treated in the 2nd Edition:
  Families Genera Species Infraspecies Native Taxa Exotic Taxa Total Taxa Excluded
Lycophytes 3 8 28 0 28 0 28 0
Ferns 17 31 105 26 110 4 114 6
Gymnosperms 3 11 41 16 41 8 49 4
Nymphaeales 2 4 8 1 5 3 8 0
Piperales 2 2 4 0 4 0 4 0
Laurales 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0
Ceratophyllales 1 1 2 0 2 0 2 0
Eudicots 105 862 3,591 1,035 2,883 1,116 3,999 164
Monocots 25 221 1,038 251 818 312 1,130 36
Total 159 1,141 4,818 1,329 3,891 1,444 5,335 210
Statistics by family for the 2nd Edition:
Lycophytes and Ferns:
Family Genera Species Infraspecies Terminal Taxa Native Exotic Endemic Excluded
Aspleniaceae 1 4 3 5 4 1 0 1
Athyriaceae 1 2 3 3 3 0 0 0
Blechnaceae 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 0
Cystopteridaceae 2 5 0 5 5 0 0 0
Dennstaedtiaceae 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 0
Dryopteridaceae 2 17 1 17 17 0 0 0
Equisetaceae 1 13 4 14 14 0 0 0
Hymenophyllaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Isoetaceae 1 7 0 7 7 0 1 0
Lycopodiaceae 6 13 0 13 13 0 0 0
Marsileaceae 2 4 0 4 3 1 0 0
Onocleaceae 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Ophioglossaceae 4 24 3 25 25 0 1 0
Osmundaceae 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
Polypodiaceae 1 6 0 6 6 0 1 0
Pteridaceae 6 15 5 17 17 0 1 3
Salviniaceae 1 3 0 3 2 1 0 0
Selaginellaceae 1 8 0 8 8 0 1 0
Thelypteridaceae 3 3 0 3 3 0 0 0
Woodsiaceae 1 3 4 5 5 0 0 2
Gymnosperms:
Family Genera Species Infraspecies Terminal Taxa Native Exotic Endemic Excluded
Cupressaceae 4 12 6 15 11 4 0 1
Pinaceae 6 27 10 32 29 3 3 3
Taxaceae 1 2 0 2 1 1 0 0
Basal Dicots and Eudicots:
Family Genera Species Infraspecies Terminal Taxa Native Exotic Endemic Excluded
Adoxaceae 3 11 8 16 11 5 0 0
Aizoaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Amaranthaceae 25 87 16 91 42 49 2 11
Anacardiaceae 2 5 2 5 4 1 0 0
Apiaceae 40 145 12 147 122 25 41 3
Apocynaceae 3 9 0 9 7 2 0 0
Aquifoliaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Araliaceae 4 8 0 8 5 3 0 0
Aristolochiaceae 1 3 0 3 3 0 0 0
Asteraceae 161 613 185 681 508 173 61 14
Balsaminaceae 1 9 0 9 4 5 1 0
Berberidaceae 3 11 0 11 7 4 0 0
Betulaceae 3 15 6 17 13 4 0 0
Bignoniaceae 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 0
Boraginaceae 25 114 21 119 94 25 16 3
Brassicaceae 70 269 34 278 193 85 38 8
Cabombaceae 2 2 0 2 1 1 0 0
Cactaceae 3 6 2 6 6 0 1 2
Campanulaceae 11 32 2 32 23 9 1 1
Cannabaceae 3 4 3 6 2 4 0 0
Caprifoliaceae 2 19 6 21 13 8 1 1
Caryophyllaceae 35 131 50 144 80 64 8 0
Celastraceae 3 9 2 9 7 2 1 0
Ceratophyllaceae 1 2 0 2 2 0 0 0
Cleomaceae 3 5 2 5 5 0 0 0
Convolvulaceae 4 18 10 19 13 6 0 7
Cornaceae 1 5 0 5 5 0 0 0
Crassulaceae 3 23 3 24 18 6 4 0
Crossosomataceae 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Cucurbitaceae 5 5 0 5 2 3 0 0
Dipsacaceae 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 0
Droseraceae 2 5 0 5 4 1 0 0
Ehretiaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Elaeagnaceae 2 5 0 5 3 2 0 0
Elatinaceae 2 5 0 5 5 0 0 0
Ericaceae 25 66 10 69 63 6 0 1
Escalloniaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Euphorbiaceae 4 29 1 29 7 22 0 0
Fabaceae 38 276 155 352 264 88 66 14
Fagaceae 3 8 2 8 4 4 0 1
Frankeniaceae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Garryaceae 2 3 0 3 2 1 0 0
Gentianaceae 11 29 12 33 31 2 5 0
Geraniaceae 2 19 3 20 5 15 0 0
Grossulariaceae 1 26 16 35 32 3 5 2
Haloragaceae 1 10 0 10 7 3 0 0
Heliotropiaceae 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Hydrangeaceae 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 0
Hydrophyllaceae 6 44 24 54 52 2 5 0
Hypericaceae 2 13 2 13 3 10 0 0
Juglandaceae 1 4 0 4 0 4 0 0
Lamiaceae 33 80 17 85 32 53 2 0
Lauraceae 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Lentibulariaceae 2 7 3 8 7 1 0 0
Limnanthaceae 2 4 0 4 2 2 1 0
Linaceae 3 9 3 10 5 5 0 2
Linderniaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Linnaeaceae 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Loasaceae 1 6 2 7 7 0 1 1
Lythraceae 3 6 0 6 2 4 0 3
Malvaceae 13 32 5 34 16 18 5 2
Mazaceae 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
Menyanthaceae 3 3 1 3 2 1 0 0
Molluginaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Montiaceae 7 32 9 36 35 1 9 1
Moraceae 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 0
Myricaceae 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 0
Namaceae 1 2 2 3 3 0 0 0
Nitrariaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Nyctaginaceae 2 8 4 10 7 3 3 4
Nymphaeaceae 2 6 1 6 4 2 0 0
Oleaceae 4 9 0 9 1 8 0 0
Onagraceae 15 79 14 83 69 14 1 6
Orobanchaceae 14 90 46 112 106 6 30 5
Oxalidaceae 1 9 0 9 3 6 0 0
Paeoniaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Papaveraceae 11 26 6 27 14 13 5 2
Paulowniaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Penthoraceae 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Phrymaceae 4 36 1 36 34 2 6 3
Phytolaccaceae 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Plantaginaceae 20 143 55 170 127 43 49 5
Plumbaginaceae 2 3 2 4 2 2 0 0
Polemoniaceae 15 81 26 91 91 0 13 3
Polygalaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Polygonaceae 11 100 70 141 107 34 16 16
Portulacaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Primulaceae 9 40 6 42 33 9 8 0
Ranunculaceae 22 123 55 149 130 19 15 6
Resedaceae 1 4 0 4 0 4 0 0
Rhamnaceae 3 12 5 13 10 3 0 1
Rosaceae 48 230 51 248 142 106 18 16
Rubiaceae 5 21 1 21 11 10 0 2
Salicaceae 2 53 13 57 50 7 2 8
Santalaceae 5 13 6 17 16 1 2 4
Sapindaceae 2 11 2 12 5 7 0 0
Sarcobataceae 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Sarraceniaceae 2 4 1 4 0 4 0 0
Saururaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Saxifragaceae 24 78 14 84 83 1 11 1
Scrophulariaceae 4 9 0 9 4 5 0 0
Simaroubaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Solanaceae 11 37 5 38 3 35 0 1
Tamaricaceae 1 3 0 3 0 3 0 0
Thymelaeaceae 2 3 0 3 0 3 0 0
Ulmaceae 1 4 0 4 0 4 0 0
Urticaceae 2 4 3 6 3 3 0 0
Valerianaceae 4 16 3 16 11 5 1 0
Verbenaceae 1 5 0 5 3 2 0 0
Violaceae 1 28 9 32 26 6 1 6
Vitaceae 2 5 0 4 0 4 0 0
Zygophyllaceae 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 0
Monocots:
Family Genera Species Infraspecies Terminal Taxa Native Exotic Endemic Excluded
Acoraceae 1 2 0 2 1 1 0 0
Alismataceae 3 11 1 11 5 6 0 1
Amaryllidaceae 4 44 5 46 33 13 10 0
Araceae 8 16 0 15 11 4 0 2
Asparagaceae 12 29 15 36 23 13 2 1
Asphodelaceae 1 3 0 3 0 3 0 0
Butomaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Commelinaceae 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 0
Cyperaceae 15 266 32 274 240 34 1 4
Hydrocharitaceae 7 11 1 11 6 5 0 1
Iridaceae 5 22 10 27 19 8 5 0
Juncaceae 2 78 23 85 64 21 0 3
Juncaginaceae 1 5 2 6 6 0 0 0
Liliaceae 9 37 15 45 45 0 9 0
Melanthiaceae 5 11 9 15 15 0 3 0
Orchidaceae 13 42 15 49 48 1 1 0
Poaceae 117 408 121 451 259 192 16 23
Pontederiaceae 3 3 0 3 1 2 0 0
Potamogetonaceae 3 25 0 25 24 1 0 0
Ruppiaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Scheuchzeriaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Smilacaceae 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 0
Tofieldiaceae 2 3 3 5 5 0 0 0
Typhaceae 2 10 0 10 7 3 0 1
Zosteraceae 3 5 0 5 4 1 0 0