A New Flora of the Pacific Northwest
A project by the Burke Museum Herbarium
Taxonomic Conspectus

Numerous changes to our flora have occurred since the 1973 publication of the Flora of the Pacific Northwest. These include the discovery of new species, range extensions of native species previously not known to occur in our flora, the arrival of additional non-native species, and taxonomic revisions to existing families, genera, and species.

The estimates below were obtained by comparing a list of all names in the 1973 Flora to a current draft checklist for the Flora region. The current draft checklist began as a synonymized checklist covering all of North America, developed by consulting Flora of North America, ITIS, the Washington Flora Checklist, and Oregon Flora Checklist as the main sources, and, to a lesser extent, the USDA Plants Database and various literature sources, with a careful attempt made to ensure correct synonymy and handling of homonyms and misapplied names. This broader list was then reduced to a checklist specifically for the Flora region by mining the PNW Herbaria database for a list of all native and naturalized specimens that fall within the Flora boundary and mapping the names on those specimens to currently accepted names, followed by further cleaning and verification of names in the list. Cleaning the checklist is an ongoing process and, as a result, the numbers below are not exact and may slightly overestimate the true extent of changes. More precise numbers will be obtained as we improve the checklist and work through individual treatments.

In summary, the total size of the flora may increase by up to 28% to a total of nearly 5,500, depending on how certain waifs and peripheral taxa are treated. About 40% of the species and infraspecies names in the 1973 Flora have been affected by nomenclatural changes. Terminal taxa in the 1973 Flora whose name has not changed in any way account for only 47% of the current Flora. At least 42% of the generic keys will require substantial modification to account for generic level splits or the addition/removal of species. Some of these keys should be entirely rewritten. The numbers below are a downward revision from our previous estimate which attributed about 5,700 terminal taxa to the region.

Comparison of the total number of taxa treated:
  1973 Flora Current Flora # Added % Increase Comments
Families 131 155 24 18.3  
Genera 811 1110 299 36.9  
Species 3541 4832 1291 36.5  
Infraspecies 1401 1531 130 9.3 (excludes quadrinomials)
Terminal Taxa 4287 5487 1200 28  
Native Terminal Taxa 3604 4240 636 17.6  
Exotic Terminal Taxa 671 1237 566 84.4 Includes waifs and marginal taxa that may not warrant treatment in the revised Flora.
Accepted Names 4942 6363 1421 28.8  
Taxa in 1973 Flora not present in current Flora
  # Removed % Removed Comments
Terminal Taxa Excluded 105 2.4 Taxa in 1973 Flora that are still accepted but not considered present within Flora region.
Terminal Taxa Lost to Synonymy 316 7.4 Species and infraspecies merged with other species or infraspecies, resulting in the loss of a terminal taxon.
New additions not treated in the 1973 Flora:
  # Added % Increase Comments
Terminal Taxa Added 1657 38.7 Total number of species and infraspecies currently known from our flora that are not treated in any manner in the 1973 Flora. Includes waifs and marginal taxa that may not warrant treatment in the revised Flora.
Native Terminal Taxa Added 1044 29 Includes range extensions for native taxa formerly not known to occur in the flora region, and species new to science. Includes some peripheral taxa that may not warrant treatment in the revised Flora.
Exotic Terminal Taxa Added 613 91.4 Introduced taxa documented from the flora following publication of the 1973 Flora. Includes some waifs and scarcely naturalized taxa that may not warrant treatment in the revised Flora.
Nomenclatural changes for taxa treated in the 1973 Flora:
  # Changed % Changed Comments
Generic-level transfers 179 22.1 Genera for which all terminal taxa in our flora have been transferred to one or more other genera (e.g., Boisduvalia).
Generic-level splits 67 8.3 Genera which are still accepted where a portion of the terminal taxa have been transferred to other genera (e.g., Aster).
Generic treatment/key changes 343 42.3 Genera in the 1973 Flora whose treatment or key must be modified or removed, either because of a change in the number of terminal taxa included within it or because the genus is no longer recognized.
Terminal taxa whose name has changed 1721 40.1 All terminal taxa with name changes, including transfers to other genera, changes in rank, and epithet changes.
Terminal taxa transferred to other genera 608 14.2 Only terminal taxa transferred to other genera, with or without a rank or epithet change.
Terminal taxa with rank change only 553 12.9 Only terminal taxa whose rank has changed without transfer to other genera.
Terminal taxa with epithet change only 519 12.1 Only changes in epithets without a change in rank or genus.
Infraspecies raised to species 559 13 Taxa treated as infraspecies in the 1973 Flora that are not treated at the rank of species.
Species reduced to infraspecies 142 3.3 Taxa treated as species in the 1973 Flora that are now treated at the rank of infraspecies.
Ambiguous terminal taxa 16 0.4 Taxa in the 1973 Flora that cannot be unambiguously linked to a single current accepted name.
Statistics by family for current Flora:
Ferns and Fern Allies:
Family Genera Species Infraspecies Terminal Taxa Native Exotic Comments
Aspleniaceae 1 3 2 4 4 0  
Athyriaceae 1 2 3 3 3 0  
Blechnaceae 2 2 0 2 2 0  
Cystopteridaceae 2 5 0 5 5 0  
Dennstaedtiaceae 1 1 2 2 2 0  
Dryopteridaceae 2 16 1 16 16 0  
Equisetaceae 1 14 4 15 15 0  
Hymenophyllaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0  
Isoetaceae 1 9 0 9 9 0  
Lycopodiaceae 3 11 0 11 11 0  
Marsileaceae 2 3 0 3 3 0  
Onocleaceae 1 1 1 1 1 0  
Ophioglossaceae 4 23 3 25 25 0  
Polypodiaceae 1 5 0 5 5 0  
Pteridaceae 6 17 3 18 18 0  
Salviniaceae 1 2 0 2 2 0  
Selaginellaceae 1 8 0 8 8 0  
Thelypteridaceae 2 3 0 3 3 0  
Woodsiaceae 1 4 4 6 6 0  
TOTAL 34 130 23 139 139 0  
Gymnosperms:
Family Genera Species Infraspecies Terminal Taxa Native Exotic Comments
Cupressaceae 6 12 4 13 12 1  
Pinaceae 6 25 10 30 28 2  
Taxaceae 1 2 0 2 1 1  
TOTAL 13 39 14 45 41 4  
Dicotyledons:
Family Genera Species Infraspecies Terminal Taxa Native Exotic Comments
Adoxaceae 3 11 7 15 10 5  
Aizoaceae 2 2 0 2 1 1  
Amaranthaceae 23 84 19 89 46 43  
Anacardiaceae 3 5 1 5 4 1  
Apiaceae 39 134 33 147 125 22  
Apocynaceae 3 11 0 11 9 2  
Aquifoliaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1  
Araliaceae 4 6 2 7 5 2  
Aristolochiaceae 1 3 0 3 3 0  
Asteraceae 164 629 218 728 574 154  
Balsaminaceae 1 7 0 7 4 3  
Berberidaceae 3 12 0 12 8 4  
Betulaceae 3 15 5 17 14 3  
Bignoniaceae 1 2 0 2 0 2  
Boraginaceae 30 157 45 172 148 24  
Brassicaceae 67 269 42 284 208 76  
Cabombaceae 2 2 0 2 1 1  
Cactaceae 3 7 1 7 7 0  
Campanulaceae 10 26 2 26 20 6  
Cannabaceae 3 3 3 5 2 3  
Caprifoliaceae 9 36 14 39 28 11  
Caryophyllaceae 28 131 48 144 85 59  
Celastraceae 2 3 1 3 2 1  
Ceratophyllaceae 1 2 0 2 2 0  
Cleomaceae 3 5 3 6 6 0  
Comandraceae 2 2 3 4 4 0  
Convolvulaceae 4 18 7 19 13 6  
Cornaceae 1 4 2 5 5 0  
Crassulaceae 4 22 10 26 21 5  
Crossosomataceae 1 1 1 1 1 0  
Cucurbitaceae 4 4 0 4 2 2  
Droseraceae 2 6 1 6 5 1  
Elaeagnaceae 2 5 0 5 3 2  
Elatinaceae 2 5 0 5 5 0  
Ericaceae 27 63 10 66 62 4  
Escalloniaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1  
Euphorbiaceae 2 19 1 19 7 12  
Fabaceae 40 310 186 398 313 85  
Fagaceae 3 8 3 9 6 3  
Frankeniaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1  
Garryaceae 1 2 0 2 2 0  
Gentianaceae 11 28 9 32 30 2  
Geraniaceae 2 15 3 16 7 9  
Grossulariaceae 1 28 15 36 34 2  
Haloragaceae 1 9 0 9 6 3  
Hydrangeaceae 3 3 0 3 2 1  
Hypericaceae 2 12 2 12 3 9  
Juglandaceae 1 3 0 3 0 3  
Lamiaceae 29 69 19 76 34 42  
Lauraceae 1 1 0 1 1 0  
Lentibulariaceae 2 7 2 7 6 1  
Limnanthaceae 2 3 1 3 3 0  
Linaceae 3 8 2 8 5 3  
Linderniaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0  
Loasaceae 1 9 4 10 10 0  
Lythraceae 3 5 0 5 2 3  
Malvaceae 8 25 5 27 17 10  
Martyniaceae 1 1 1 1 0 1  
Menyanthaceae 3 3 0 3 2 1  
Molluginaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0  
Montiaceae 7 33 12 38 38 0  
Moraceae 2 2 0 2 0 2  
Myricaceae 2 2 0 2 2 0  
Nitrariaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1  
Nyctaginaceae 2 8 2 9 7 2  
Nymphaeaceae 2 7 1 7 5 2  
Oleaceae 3 4 0 4 1 3  
Onagraceae 15 78 33 93 84 9  
Orobanchaceae 12 90 47 113 108 5  
Oxalidaceae 1 6 0 6 3 3  
Paeoniaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0  
Papaveraceae 11 27 5 28 14 14  
Parnassiaceae 1 5 1 5 5 0  
Penthoraceae 1 1 0 1 0 1  
Phrymaceae 5 35 1 35 32 3  
Phytolaccaceae 1 1 1 1 1 0  
Plantaginaceae 19 147 60 177 139 38  
Plumbaginaceae 2 2 2 3 3 0  
Polemoniaceae 15 85 53 112 112 0  
Polygalaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1  
Polygonaceae 11 117 71 159 127 32  
Portulacaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1  
Primulaceae 9 36 9 40 34 6  
Ranunculaceae 17 122 54 148 129 19  
Resedaceae 1 4 0 4 0 4  
Rhamnaceae 2 11 3 12 10 2  
Rosaceae 47 217 81 254 180 74  
Rubiaceae 6 23 5 25 15 10  
Salicaceae 2 66 9 68 58 10  
Santalaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0  
Sapindaceae 2 11 5 14 7 7  
Sarcobataceae 1 1 0 1 1 0  
Sarraceniaceae 2 4 1 4 0 4  
Saururaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0  
Saxifragaceae 25 82 13 89 88 1  
Scrophulariaceae 5 12 0 12 4 8  
Simaroubaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1  
Solanaceae 10 30 6 31 4 27  
Tamaricaceae 1 3 0 3 0 3  
Thesiaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1  
Thymelaeaceae 2 3 0 3 0 3  
Ulmaceae 1 4 0 4 0 4  
Urticaceae 2 5 3 7 3 4  
Verbenaceae 1 7 2 7 5 2  
Violaceae 1 29 13 35 31 4  
Viscaceae 2 4 0 4 4 0  
Vitaceae 2 3 0 3 0 3  
Zygophyllaceae 2 2 0 2 0 2  
TOTAL 845 3602 1224 4134 3182 952  
Monocotyledons:
Family Genera Species Infraspecies Terminal Taxa Native Exotic Comments
Acoraceae 1 2 0 2 1 1  
Alismataceae 3 12 1 12 5 7  
Amaryllidaceae 4 42 5 44 35 9  
Araceae 10 17 0 17 12 5  
Asparagaceae 13 31 14 38 26 12  
Butomaceae 1 1 0 1 0 1  
Colchicaceae 2 6 0 6 6 0  
Commelinaceae 2 2 0 2 0 2  
Cyperaceae 15 281 46 298 274 24  
Hydrocharitaceae 5 8 1 8 5 3  
Iridaceae 5 22 7 26 20 6  
Juncaceae 2 75 18 81 63 18  
Juncaginaceae 1 4 0 4 4 0  
Liliaceae 7 32 11 37 37 0  
Melanthiaceae 6 14 8 17 17 0  
Orchidaceae 14 42 16 49 48 1  
Poaceae 113 420 134 472 289 183  
Pontederiaceae 3 3 0 3 1 2  
Potamogetonaceae 3 24 6 27 26 1  
Ruppiaceae 1 2 0 2 2 0  
Scheuchzeriaceae 1 1 0 1 1 0  
Tofieldiaceae 2 3 3 5 5 0  
Typhaceae 2 10 0 10 7 3  
Xanthorrhoeaceae 1 2 0 2 0 2  
Zosteraceae 2 5 0 5 4 1  
TOTAL 219 1061 270 1169 888 281